Prof. Dr. Protima Rauwel 

Professor and Head of the Chair “Energy Application Engineering” (EMÜ)

CEO of PRO-1 NANOSolutions


Nationality: French

Status: Married, 2 children

Estonian University of Life Sciences

Institute of Forestry and Engineering, Chair of Energy Application Engineering (Head)
Fr.R.Kreutzwaldi 56, Tartu 51006, ESTONIA

ORCID: 0000-0001-5393-2352



  • Ph.D in Condensed Matter Physics (2005, University of Caen, France)
  • M. S. in Solid State Physics (2002, University of Caen)

Present fields of research


01/2021 – : Professor, Head of the Chair Energy Application Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Engineering

09/2020 – 12/2020: Professor, Head of the Chair Energy Application Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology

09/2018 – 08/2020: Senior Researcher. Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Biosystems Engineering

09/2016 – 08/2018: Senior Researcher. Tallinn University of Technology, Tartu College

2013 – 2015: Founding researcher for Transmission Electron Microscopy, University of Tartu

2009 – 2013: Researcher, University of Oslo, Dpt. Of Physics, Norway

2006 – 2009: Post-Doc Fellowship, University of Aveiro, CICECO, Portugal

2002 – 2005: PhD Student, University of Caen, SIFCOM, France.

Honor and Awards:

IAAM Scientist Medal in recognition for her contribution to “Nanomaterials & Nanotechnology”, 55th Assembly of Advanced Materials Congress, 28th to 31st August 2023, Sweden.

Present Projects:


Postdoctoral researcher:

Dr. Sadaf Jehtva (2023-):”Development of earth abundant nanocomposites for dye degradation and green electricity production in aqueous mediaMOBJD1200

Dr. Priyanka Panchal (2023-): “Medicinal Plant Extract Mediated g-C3N4 Based Photo-catalysts for Environmental ApplicationsMOBJD1204


Mr. Reynald Ponte (2022-): Tin based nanomaterials as electrodes materials for lithium-ion batteries

– Mr. Patricio Paredes (2021-): Synthesis of narrow band gap copper nitride nanoparticles for optoelectronic and energy application

– Mr. Keshav Nagpal (2020-): Polymer encapsulation of metal-oxide nanoparticles for LED applications.

Master student:

Mr. Taavi Murel (2023-2024): Optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanorods


Former supervisions (defended)

Postdoctoral researcher:

Dr. Yuri Hendrix (2022): Nanomaterials applied to dye degradation


Dr. Siim Kuunal  (2014-2022): Metal nanoparticles synthesis applied to green housing


Mr. Henno Kaeval (2021-2023): Photoelectric Properties of ZnO Nanorods

Mr. Sven Petratškov (2020-21): Testing the efficiency of new fuels composed of diesel and nanoparticles (defended)

Mr. Martin Malm (2018-20): Nanocomposites for iron and manganese extraction from water

Mr. Toivo Viidalepp (2019-20): Development of a device for photocurrent measurement

Mr. Arnaud Behr (École Centrale de Lille) (2017): “Study of water purification using metal nanoparticles” (3 months)

Mr. Andres Aasna (2015-16): Carbon hybrid nanomaterials for photovoltaic applications 

Mr. Martin Saalumaa (2014-15): Hybrid nanomaterials for photovoltaic applications

2024  Publications:

(1) « Surface-defect tailoring in SnO2 (CNT) nanomaterials via sol-gel routes and its influence on the cycling stability » R. Ponte, E. Rauwel and P. Rauwel, Journal of Materials Science Online (2024) [REF]

(2) « Use of Aloe Vera Gel as Media to Assess Antimicrobial Activity and Development of Antimicrobial Nanocomposites » E. Rauwel; G. Arya; K. Praakle; P. Rauwel, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 25(11),  5599 (2024) [REF]

(3) « Fabrication and evaluation of figures of merit of ZnO polymer-based hybrid UV photodiodes » K. Nagpal, E. Rauwel, F. Ducroquet, I. Gelard and P. Rauwel, Applied Physics Letters Materials  12, 061109 (2024) [REF]

2023  Publications:

(1) « Functional Nanomaterials for Optoelectronics and Photocatalysis (Editorial) » P. Rauwel and E. Rauwel, Nanomaterials MDPI 13(19), 2694 (2023) [REF]

(2) « Relevance of alcoholic solvents in the growth of ZnO nanoparticles and ZnO hierarchical nanorod structures on their optical and opto-electrical properties » K. Nagpal, E. Rauwel, F. Ducroquet, I. Gelard and P. Rauwel, Nanotechnology 34, 485602 (2023) [REF]

(3) Y. Hendrix, E. Rauwel, K. Nagpal, R. Haddad, E. Estephan, C. Boissière, P. Rauwel, «Revealing the Dependency of Dye Adsorption and Photocatalytic Activity of ZnO Nanoparticles on Their Morphology and Defect States » Nanomaterials  13(13), 1998 (2023) [REF]

(4) R. Ponte, E. Rauwel, P. Rauwel,« Tailoring SnO2 Defect States and Structure: Reviewing Bottom-Up Approaches to Control Size, Morphology, Electronic and Electrochemical Properties for Application in Batteries »  Materials  16(12), 4339 (2023) [REF]

(5) P. Paredes, E. Rauwel, D. S. Wragg, L. Rapenne, E. Estephan, O. Volobujeva and P. Rauwel «Sunlight-Driven Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue with Facile One-Step Synthesized Cu-Cu2O-Cu3N Nanoparticle Mixtures»  Nanomaterials MDPI 13(8), 1311 (2023) [REF]

(6) R. Kumar, P.Rauwel, M. Kriipsalu, D. Wragg, E. Rauwel « Nanocobalt based (Co@Co(OH)2) sand nanocomposite applied to manganese extraction from contaminated water »  Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 11(3), 109818 (2023) [REF]

(7)  P. Rauwel and E. Rauwel, «Functional Nanomaterials for Optoelectronics and Photocatalysis» Book of the Special Issue that was published in Nanomaterials MDPI (2023) [REF]

2022  Publications:

(1) K. Nagpal, L. Rapenne, D. S. Wragg, E. Rauwel, P. Rauwel « The role of CNT in surface defect passivation and UV emission intensification of ZnO nanoparticles » Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Vol. 12, 1–10 (2022) [REF]

(2) E. Rauwel and P. Rauwel, «Metal Oxide Thin Films: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications» Book of the Special Issue that was published in Materials MDPI (2022) [REF]

(3) P. Paredes, E. Rauwel and P. Rauwel, «Surveying the Synthesis, Optical Properties and Photocatalytic Activity of Cu3N Nanomaterials» Nanomaterials MDPI 12(13), 2218 (2022) [REF]

(4) K. Nagpal, M. S. Rosario, K. Praakle, E. Rauwel, P. Rauwel « Investigation of the optical and antibacterial properties of biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles using Thuja tincture » Journal of Physics: Conference Series 2315, 012016 (2022) [REF]

(5) Harleen Kaur, Kristi Praakle, M. Soares Rosario, Protima Rauwel, Erwan Rauwel « Artemisia vulgaris tincture-assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity » Journal of Physics: Conference Series 2315, 012027 (2022) [REF]

(6) R. Kumar, P. Rauwel, M. Kriipsalu, E. Rauwel « A colorimetric method of As3+ ion detection and quantification using hand-held Lovibond photometers » Journal of Physics: Conference Series 2315, 012031 (2022) [REF]

(7) H. Kaur, P. Rauwel and E. Rauwel “Antimicrobial nanoparticles: Synthesis, mechanism of actions” published in “Antimicrobial Activity of Nanoparticles, Applications in Wound Healing and Infection Treatment”, Chapter 6, pages 155-202, Elsevier│S&T Books (2022) [REF]

(8) K. Nagpal, E. Rauwel, E. Estephan, M. R. Soares, P. Rauwel « Significance of Hydroxyl Groups on the Optical Properties of ZnO Nanoparticles Combined with CNT and PEDOT:PSS »   Nanomaterials  12, 3546 (2022) [REF]

2021  Publications:

(1) K. Nagpal, E. Rauwel, F. Ducroquet and P. Rauwel « Assessment of the optical and electrical properties of light emitting diodes containing carbon-based nanostructures and plasmonic nanoparticles: a review », Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 12, 1078–1092 (2021) [REF]

(2) R. Kumar, P. Rauwel and E. Rauwel « Nanoadsorbants for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Contaminated Water: Current Scenario and Future Directions » Processes MDPI 9(8), 1379 (2021) [REF]

(3) P. Rauwel, A. Galeckas and E.Rauwel «Enhancing the UV emission in ZnO-CNT hybrid nanostructures via the surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles»  Nanomaterials MDPI 11(2), 452 (2021) [REF]

(4) E. Rauwel and P. Rauwel, « Editorial for the Special Issue on ‘Metal Oxide Thin Films: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications’» Materials MDPI 14(8), 1834 (2021) [REF]

2020  Publications:

(1) R.-C. Xie C. Batchelor-McAuley. E. Rauwel, P. Rauwel, R. G. Compton, «Electrochemical Characterisation of Co@Co(OH)2 Core‐shell Nanoparticles and their Aggregation in Solution »  ChemElectroChem 7, 4259 –4268 (2020) [REF]

(2) E. Rauwel, S. Al-Arag, H. Salehi, C. O. Amorim, F. Cuisinier, M. Guha, M. S. Rosario, P. Rauwel, «Assessing Cobalt Metal Nanoparticles uptake by Cancer Cells using Live Raman Spectroscopy» International Journal of Nanomedicine 15, 7051-7062 (2020) [REF]

2019  Publications:

(1) P. Rauwel, F. Ducroquet, A. Galeckas and E. Rauwel, « Selective photocurrent generation in HfO2-CNT hybrid nanocomposites under UV and visible photoexcitations »  Materials Letters 246, 45–48 (2019) [REF]

(2) P. Rauwel, A. Galeckas and E. Rauwel, « Time evolution of ZnO-CNT photoluminescence under variable ambient and temperature conditions. » IOP conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 613, 012031 (6 pages) (2019) [REF]

(3) S. Küünal, M. Visnapuu, O. Volubujeva, M. Soares Rosario, P. Rauwel and E. Rauwel, « Optimisation of plant mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles by common weed Plantago major and their antimicrobial properties »  IOP conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 613, 012003 (8 pages) (2019) [REF]

(4) Rauwel, W. Uhl and E. Rauwel, « Editorial for the Special Issue on ‘Application and Behavior of Nanomaterials in Water Treatment’ » Nanomaterials MDPI 9(6), 880 (2019) [REF]

(5) Rauwel and E. Rauwel, « Towards the extraction of radioactive Cesium-137 from water via graphene/CNT and nanostructured Prussian blue hybrid nanocomposites: A Review »  Nanomaterials MDPI 9(5), 682 (2019) [weblink]

(6) P. Rauwel and E. Rauwel, «Application and Behavior of Nanomaterials in Water Treatment» reprint of the Special Issue that was published in Nanomaterials MDPI (2019) [REF]

2018  Publications:

(1) S. Küünal, P. Rauwel and E. Rauwel, « Plant extract mediated synthesis of nanoparticles. » published in “Handbook of nanoparticles and architectural nanostructured materials”, Chapter 14, pages 411-446, Elsevier│S&T Books (2018) [REF]

2017  Publications:

(1) E. Rauwel, A. Galeckas, M. Rosário Soares and P. Rauwel« Influence of the interface on the photoluminescence properties in ZnO carbon based nanohybrids »  J. Phys. Chem. C 121, 14879-14887 (2017) [REF].

(2) P. Rauwel, A. Galeckas, M. Salumaa, A. Aasna, F. Ducroquet and E. Rauwel « Investigations on new carbon-based nanohybrids combining carbon nanotubes, HfO2 and ZnO nanoparticles » IOP conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 175, 012064 (5 pages) (2017) [REF]

(3) P. Rauwel and E. Rauwel, « Emerging Trends in Nanoparticle Synthesis Using Plant Extracts for Biomedical Applications » Global journal of nanomedicine 1(3), 555562 (2017) [REF]

(4) E. Rauwel, L. Simón-Gracia, M. Guha, P. Rauwel, S. Kuunal, D. Wragg, « Silver metal nanoparticles study for biomedical and green house applications »  IOP conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 175, 012011 (5 pages) (2017) [REF]

2016  Publications:

(1) Küünal, Siim; Kutti, Sander; Rauwel, Protima; Guha, Mithu; Wragg, David; Rauwel, Erwan (2016). Biocidal Properties Study of Silver Nanoparticles Used for Application in Green Housing. International Nano Letters, 6 (3), 191−197, 2016, 10.1007/s40089-016-0186-7.

(2) Glen, Kelp; Tanel, Tätte, Siim, Pikker; Hugo, Mändar; Alex, Rozhin; Protima, Rauwel; Alexander, Vanetsev; Alar, Gerst; Maido, Merisalu; Uno, Mäeorg; Marco, Natali; Ingmar, Persson; Vadim, Kessler (2016). Self-assembled SnO2 micro- and nanospheres-based gas sensor thick films from alkoxide-derived high purity aqueous colloid precursor. Nanoscale, 8 (11), 7056−7067, C5NR07942J.

(3)Azarov, Alexander; Vines, Lasse; Rauwel, Protima; Monakhov, Edouard; Svensson, Bengt Gunnar. (2016). Silver migration and trapping in ion implanted ZnO single crystals. Journal of Applied Physics, 2016, 119, 185705, 10.1063/1.4949331.

(4) Rauwel, Protima; Galeckas, Augustinas; Salumaa, Martin; Ducroquet, Frédérique; Rauwel, Erwan (2016). Photocurrent generation and structural study of hybrid nanocomposite combining carbon nanotubes and cubic HfO2 nanoparticles. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, 2016, 7, 1075−1085, 10.3762/bjnano.7.101.

(5)Lilloja, J.; Kibena-Põldsepp, E.; Merisalu, M.; Rauwel, P.; Matisen, L.; Niilisk, A.; Cardoso, E.S.F.; Maia, G.; Sammelselg, V.; Tammeveski, K. (2016). An oxygen reduction study of graphene-based nanomaterials of different origin. Catalysts, 6 (7),2016 108, catal6070108.

(6)Jukk, K.; Kongi, N.; Rauwel, P.; Matisen, L.; Tammeveski, K. (2016). Platinum nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction. Electrocatalysis, 7 (5), 428−440,2016,  s12678-016-0322-1.

(7)Kruusenberg, I.; Ramani, D.; Ratso, S.; Joost, U.; Saar, R.; Rauwel, P.; Kannan, A.M.; Tammeveski, K. (2016). Cobalt-nitrogen co-doped carbon nanotube cathode catalyst for alkaline membrane fuel cells. ChemElectroChem, 3 (9), 1455−1465, 2016, 10.1002/celc.201600241.

(8) Ratso, S.; Kruusenberg, I.; Sarapuu, A.; Kook, M.; Rauwel, P.; Saar, R.; Aruväli, J.; Tammeveski, K. (2016). Electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction on iron- and cobalt-containing nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes in acid media. Electrochimica Acta, 218, 303−310, 2016, 10.1016/j.electacta.2016.09.119.

(9)Ratso, S.; Kruusenberg, I.; Sarapuu, A.; Rauwel, P.; Saar, R.; Joost, U.; Aruväli, J.; Kanninen, P.; Kallio, T.; Tammeveski, K. (2016). Enhanced oxygen reduction reaction activity of iron-containing nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for alkaline direct methanol fuel cell application. Journal of Power Sources, 332, 129−138, 2016,10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.09.069.

(10) Rauwel, Protima; Salumaa, Martin, Aasna, Andres; Galeckas, Augustinas; Rauwel, Erwan (2016). A Review of the Synthesis and Photoluminescence Properties of Hybrid ZnO and Carbon Nanomaterials. Journal of Nanomaterials, 5320625, 1−12.2016

(11)Rauwel, Erwan; Galeckas, Augustinas; Rauwel, Protima; Hansen, Per-Anders; Wragg, David; Nilsen, Ola; Fjellvåg, Helmer. (2016). Metal oxide nanoparticles embedded in rare-earth matrix for low temperature thermal imaging applications. Materials Research Express, 3 (5),2016 055010−055021, 10.1088/2053-1591/3/5/055010.

(12)Küünal, S.; Kutti, S.; Rauwel, P.; Wragg, D.; Hussainova, I.; Rauwel, E. (2016). New methodology for the antifungal testing of surfactant-free silver metal nanoparticles for applications in green housing. In: Hussainova, I.; Veinthal, R. (Ed.). Engineering Materials and Tribology (133−138). 2016, Trans Tech Publications Ltd. (Key Engineering Materials ; 674).